LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes)
LEDs are the new kids on the block when it comes to vivarium lighting. This technology is still growing, but there are LED lighting solutions on the market that are appropriate for vivarium use. LEDs use remarkably little energy and produce very little heat for their light output. On top of that, the lifespan of an LED is typically 10 years or more! They have been utilized in the hydroponics industry longer than the dart frog hobby has taken advantage of them, and there are several brands available. They can sometimes be a little difficult to find, but are well worth the effort. LED lighting also tends to remain more intense at a distance, allowing the lower reaches of a vivarium to be lit.
LEDs allow light to penetrate deep in the vivarium. This moss is about 18” away from the bulb.
Pros: energy efficient, very long life, very bright, correct spectrum, light penetrates
Cons: initially costly, but cheaper in the long run